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Art History

Selected Primary Resources


The University of Delaware Library's collection encompasses all periods and styles of fine, decorative, and applied arts. It is particularly strong in works on painting technique and instruction, the decorative arts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, architecture, and the book arts.

Included in the fine arts collection are early works such as Joachim von Sandrart's L'Academia todesca della architectura, sculptura & pittura (1675-79), the first French edition of Leonardo da Vinci's Traitté de la peinture (1651), and technical essays such as William Faithorne's The Art of Graveling, and Etching (1662). There is a superb collection of material on art instruction from the eighteenth and nineteenth century such as Gabriel Smith's The School of Art, or, Most Compleat Drawing-book Extant (1765), and A Series of Progressive Lessons, Intended to Elucidate the Art of Flower Painting in Water Colours (1818). Special Collections also holds small, but significant, collections of original artwork, including a group of watercolors by George and Robert Cruikshank, forgeries of oil paintings by Albert Pinkham Ryder, and prints by Irish artist Brian Coffey.

Architectural holdings range from early works such as Peter Paul Rubens's architectural pattern book Palazzi…di Genova (1708) and Vincenzo Scamozzi's L'idea della architettura universale (1615) to important American works such as Asher Benjamin's The Country Builder's Assistant (1797) and A. J. Davis's Rural Residences (1837). A group of original architectural drawings in ink and watercolor by Henry Holland (circa 1786) depict English country houses. Important architectural drawings of churches, residences, and public buildings are found in collections of important Philadelphia firms or individual architects such as Collins and Autenrieth or Edward Rahn. Several archival collections are described in Architecture: Selected Primary Sources.

The vernacular architecture of Delaware is documented in two collections of visual material: the Delaware Postcard Collection and the Willard Stewart Photographs for the WPA & HABS. Both sources are available as digital collections via the Internet.

The Delaware Postcard Collection
The Willard Stewart Photographs for WPA and HABS

The decorative arts collection is especially strong in furniture design including Thomas Chippendale's The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director (1762), Thomas Sheraton's The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing-book (1794), and J. Stokes' The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Companion (1852). Special Collections also holds a large collection of trade catalogs for furniture, hardware, and decorative items from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries.

The book arts collection contains many fine examples of illustration and colorplate books. Outstanding examples by the finest nineteenth-century color printers including Owen Jones, George Baxter, and Henry Noel Humphreys are in the collection. Many contemporary artist's books and fine press books contain original prints by artists such as Leonard Baskin, Jim Dine, and Richard Diebenkorn. Detailed descriptions of holdings related to Artists Books and Printing and the Book Arts are available.

Manuscript collections include the personal papers and letters for biographical study of many artists, printers, and photographers, such as John Anderson, Brian Coffey, Gertrude Käsebier, Rockwell Kent, Thornton Oakley, Howard Pyle, Katherine Pyle, and Albert Pinkham Ryder. Comprehensive archives document the careers of several fine printers, typographers, and designers, such as Frederic Goudy, Peter Koch, Henry Morris, and John De Pol.

The aesthetics of any given period are represented in the original artwork and presentation of many personal diaries, journals, ship logs, and scrapbooks found in manuscript collections. Trade catalogs, advertising posters, and sample books for various commercial ventures document the visual history of popular culture, as do cover designs for books in large collections such as the Boys Books Collection or the Science Fiction Collection. Poster collections rich in graphic design range from 1960s rock posters, to political propaganda in the Portugese Poster Collection, to a large nineteenth-century Theatrical Playbills and Posters collection.

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Printed Collections

Selected bibliography, arranged chronologically:

Vallet, Pierre, fl. 1600

Le iardin du Roy tres chrestien, Loys XIII, Roy de France et de Navare .../ par Pierre Vallet brodeur ordinaire du Roy. A Paris: Et se vandent au Logis de l'auteur, Rue du Four, 1623.

LOCATION: Special Collections Horticulture Folio SB91 .A2 V33 1623

Leonardo, da Vinci, 1452-1519.

Traitté de la peinture. Paris, Impr. de I. Langlois, 1651.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio ND1130 .L516

Faithorne, William, 1616-1691.

The art of graveing, and etching... London: Pvblished by Willm. Faithorne. And sold at his shop next to ye. Signe of ye. Drake, without Temple Barr, 1662.

LOCATION: Special Collections NE1760.F3 1662

Aglionby, William, d. 1705.

Painting illustrated in three diallogues: containing some choice observations upon the art: together with the lives of the most eminent painters, from Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo... London: Printed by John Gain, 1685.

LOCATION: Special Collections ND1130 .A3 1685

Félibien, André, sieur des Avaux et de Javercy, 1619-1695.

Recueil de descriptions de peintures et d'autres ouvrages faits pour le roy [par Félibien]. Paris: Veuve de S. Mabre-Cramoisy, 1689.

LOCATION: Special Collections N6846 .F43 1689

Rubens, Peter Paul, Sir, 1577-1640.

Palazzi antichi di Genova raccolti e designati da Pietro Paolo Rubens. In Anversa: Appresso Enrico e Cornelio Verdussen, anno 1708.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ NA7756 .G3 R8 1708

Condivi, Ascanio, b. ca. 1520.

Vita di Michelagnolo Buonarroti... Firenze: G. Albizzini, 1746.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio N6923.B9 C6 1746

Piganiol de La Force, Jean-Aimar, 1673-1753.

Nouvelle description des chateaux et parcs de Versailles et de Marly, contenant une explication historique de toutes les peintures ... statues ... et ornamens qui s'y vayent ... . Paris: Chez Poirion, 1751.

LOCATION: Special Collections N6851.V5 P54 1751

Vasari, Giorgio, 1512-1574.

Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architetti. In Roma: per Niccolo' e Marco Pagliarini ..., 1759-60.

LOCATION: Special Collections N6922 .V2 1759

Benjamin, Asher, 1773-1845.

The country builder's assistant. Boston: Printed by Spotswood and Etheridge, for the author, sold by him, and by A. Thomas, Worcester, 1798.

LOCATION: Special Collections NA2520 .B4 1798

Gillray, James, 1757-1815.

La rigenerazione dell' Olanda... Venezia: Appresso Giovanni Zatta di Antonio Librajo all'insegna della Providenza in Frezzaria, 1799.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio+ NC1493 .G54 1799

Ventenat, Étienne Pierre, 1757-1808.

Description des plantes nouvelles et peu connues, cultivées dans le jardin de J.M. Cels. Paris: De l'impr. de Crapelet, an 8, 1800.

LOCATION: Special Collections Horticulture QK 45 .V46x 1800

Musée du Louvre.

... Notice des tableaux des écoles française et flamande, exposés dans la grande galerie, dont l'ouverture a eu lieu le 18 germinal an VII; et des tableaux des écoles de Lombardie et de Bologne, dont l'exposition a eu lieu le 25 messidor an IX. [Paris] Impr. des sciences et arts [1801?]

LOCATION: Special Collections N2030 .A757 1801B

Hodson, Thomas, of the Middle Temple.

The cabinet of the arts: being a new and universal drawing book, forming a complete system of drawing, painting ... etching, engraving, perspective, projection, & surveying ... containing the whole theory and practice of the fine arts in general ... Illustrated with upward of 60 elegant engravings. To which is added an Appendix ... By T. Hodson & I. Dougall. London, T. Ostell, 1805.

LOCATION: Special Collections NC705 .H6

Nicholson, Francis, 1793-1844.

Six views of Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire. London: Pubd. & sold by Rodwell and Martin, New Bond St. [between 1820 and 1826] [London]: Printed at C. Hullmandel's lithographic establishment, no. 51, Gt Marlborough Str.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ NA5469 .Y5 F68x 1820

Repton, Humphry, 1752-1818.

Fragments on the theory and practice of landscape gardening. London: Printed by T. Bensley & son, for J. Taylor, 1816.

LOCATION: Special Collections Horticulture folio SB471 .R423

Cawse, John, 1779?-1862.

The art of painting portraits, landscapes, animals, draperies, satin, &c. in oil colours. London: R. Ackermann ..., 1840.

LOCATION: Special Collections ND1473 .C38 1840

Sartain, John, 1808-1897.

Poetical and prose illustrations on celebrated American painters: with eleven engravings on steel. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1852.

LOCATION: Special Collections ND210 .S4

Barnard, George, 1807-1890.

The theory and practice of landscape painting in water colours … London: W.S. Orr, 1855.

LOCATION: Special Collections ND2240 .B3

Burgess, Nathan G.

The photograph and ambrotype manual: a practical treatise on the art of taking positive and negative photographs on paper and glass ... . New York: Wiley & Halsted ; London: Trübner, 1858.

LOCATION: Special Collections TR145 .B95 1858

Burnet, John, 1784-1868.

Practical hints on light and shade in painting: illustrated by examples from the Italian, Flemish, and Dutch schools. London: J. & J. Leighton, 1864.

LOCATION: Special Collections FOLIO ND1135 .B87x 1864

Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882.

Gardner's photographic sketch book of the war. Washington, D.C. : Philp & Solomons, [1865]

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ E 468.7 .G19x 1865

Chapman, J. G. (John Gadsby), 1808-1889.

The American drawing-book: a manual for the amateur, and basis of study for the professional artist ; especially adapted to the use of public and private schools, as well as home instruction. New York: Barnes, 1870.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio NC 710 .C52 1847b

Bezold, Wilhelm von, 1837-1907.

The theory of color in its relation to art and art-industry / translated from the German by S.R. Koehler ; with an introd. and notes by Edward C. Pickering... Boston: L. Prang and Co., 1876.

LOCATION: Special Collections ND1280 .B5x 1876

Book of American figure painters. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1886.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio+ ND210 .B6 1886

Maindron, Ernest, 1838-1908.

... Les affiches illustrées; ouvrage orné de 20 chromolithographies par Jules Chéret et de nombreuses r eproductions en noir et en couleur d'après les documents originaux. [Paris] H. Launette & cie., 1886.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio NC1810 .M18

Proust, Antonin, 1832-1905.

The Salon of 1891. One hundred plates in photogravure and etchings by Goupil & Co.; with text in English translated by Henry Bacon. Paris: Goupil & Co.; Boston: Estes & Lauriat, c1891.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio N5065 .A3 1891e

Mucha, Alphonse Marie, 1860-1939.

Documents décoratifs. Paris: Librairie centrale des beauxarts, E. Lévy, [1902].

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio+ NK1535.M8 A44

The Black mirror. Chicago, 1903-1912.

LOCATION: Special Collections N1 .B6

Locquin, Jean.

La peinture d'histoire en France de 1747 à 1785: étude sur l'évolution des idées artistiques dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Laurens, 1912.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio ND546 .L7

This is New York: the first modern photographic book of New York / edited by Gilbert Seldes; photographic editor, Leigh Irwin. New York : D. Kemp, c1934 (S.l.: Printing House of William Edwin Rudge).

LOCATION: Special Collections folio F128.5 .A46x 1934

Kitasono, Katué.

Moonlight night in a bag. Tokio, Japan: Editions Vou, c1966.

LOCATION: Special Collections TR656 .K58x 1966

Albers, Josef.

Formulation, articulation. New York: H.N. Abrams, c1972.

LOCATION: Special Collections Folio+ ND588.A34 A45 1972

Baskin, Leonard, 1922-

Icones librorum artifices : being actual, putative, fugative & fantastical portraits of engravers, illustrators & binders / etchings and notes by Leonard Baskin. Leeds, Mass. : The Gehenna Press, 1988.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ Z232.G2956 B37x 1988

Cooper, Thomas Joshua, 1946-

A handful of stones. Docking, Norfolk, England: Coracle, 1996.

LOCATION: Special Collections TR660.5 .C668 1996

Dine, Jim, 1935-

Ape & cat / Jim Dine. The madonna of the future / Henry James. San Francisco: Arion Press, 1997.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ N7433.4 .D56 A73x 1997

Indiana, Robert, 1928-

The American dream / with poetry by Robert Creeley ; foreword by Susan Ryan ; captioning by Michael McKenzie. El Segundo, Calif.: Marco Fine Arts Contempoary Atelier, c1997.

LOCATION: Special Collections FOLIO+ N6537.I53 A4 1997

Santoro, Vittorio, 1962-

Untitled (train). Zurich: Memory/Cage Editions, c1997.

LOCATION: Special Collections TR654 .S257x 1997

Hecht, Anthony, 1923 -

The Gehenna florilegium / poems by Anthony Hecht; woodcuts by Leonard Baskin. Rockport, Me.: Gehenna Press, 1998.

LOCATION: Special Collections folio+ Z232 .G2956 H434x 1998

Sultan, Donald.

Visual poetics / with poetry by Robert Creeley, text by Michael McKenzie. El Segundo, CA : Marco Fine Arts Contemporary Atelier, c1998.

LOCATION: Special Collections FOLIO+ ND237.S92 A4 1998

Lemons descending: music, poetry, etchings. [S.l.] : Oxingale Press, 2000.

LOCATION: Special Collections FOLIO N 7433.4 L46x 2000

Koch, Peter Rutledge.

The VII liberal arts. [Berkeley, Calif.] Editions Koch, 2002.

LOCATION: Special Collections FOLIO+ N7433.4.K64 S6x 2002

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Visual Material

GRA 100 George and Robert Cruikshank Collection, 1812 – 1875; 5 boxes, 1 oversize box (1 linear ft.)

The collection comprises original artwork, including pencil drawings, pen and ink drawings, watercolor paintings, etchings, and engravings and autographed letters of the Cruikshank brothers. George Cruikshank (1792-1878), illustrator and cartoonist, was born in Bloomsbury, London, the son of Isaac Cruikshank, an illustrator and painter. His brother Robert Cruikshank (1789-1856) was also an artist and often collaborated with him. Taught to draw and etch by his father, Cruikshank published political caricatures in magazines before he was twenty years old. He became known for his caricatures ridiculing King George IV and for his social satires such as "Monstrosities" which focused on the extremes of fashion. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Cruikshank's satiric style was out of fashion, but he strongly influenced later humorists like Phiz and Leech whose work defined the great British humor magazine Punch.

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Manuscripts and Archival Resources

Historical manuscripts and archives include the papers, letters, diaries, photographs, account books, ledgers, and records of individuals, families, and organizations. Unpublished finding aids to manuscript and archival collections are available in Special Collections, and a large number of these have been posted on the Library's server for access via the Internet.

MSS 097 Diaries, Journals, Ship Logs Collection

Item 006 Charles Boss, Daily report of Charles Boss: life and adventures on the frontiers, composed in field, jail, and escapes, prairie, mountains, rivers, Indians, pioneers, robbers, and murder stories, theft and desertion, District of Territories Expeditions from 1869-1876, 1877; 1 vol.

The title of Charles Boss's work aptly describes the scope and spirit of his account as an "Indian fighter" in the U.S. Infantry. This volume, written later than 1884 when Boss was discharged, was based on "papers" he had kept during his service. His more-than-probably embellished memories are certainly mindful of penny thrillers and dime novels, and his text is presented with dramatically calligraphied captions.

Item 030 George Arthur Gray, To China & Back, being a journal of what occurred on board of the Barque Dorchester on the passage out, also giving an account of the manners and customs of the Chinese. A Description of the country, cities, &c. and the return passage on board Barque Nabob, a period of three years 1 month; March 29, 1863 - April 15, 1866; 4 vol.

Gray's title neatly summarizes his travel narrative, an illustrated two-volume journal which he hoped to publish.

Item 038 Frederick A. Hodge, Log of H.M.S. Minotaur kept by F.A. Hodge, February 14 - December 21, 1881 ... Log of H.M.S. Swiftsure ... June 26 - November 20, 1885; 2 vol.

Midshipman Frederick Hodge's logs are works of art. They include the standard log records of date, course, distance, wind, barometer and thermometer readings, and remarks; but Hodge has enhanced his record keeping with pencil drawings, pen and ink sketches, and hand-colored illustrations. He drew plans and sections of each ship on which he served, details of ship parts such as rudders or guns, charts and maps of voyages, nautical flags, anchors, buoys, sketches of ports or landscapes, and passings ships.

Item 117 Harriet S. Crothers, Journal, August 18 - November 22, 1846; 1 vol.

Harriet Crothers, apparently from Philadelphia, kept this detailed travel diary on a honeymoon tour of continental Europe with her "dear husband Willy." Their full intenerary included most major cities in the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Czechoslovakia. Her lengthy daily entries reflect typical tourist activities such as visiting churches, galleries, and musuems, with great, rich descriptions of music heard, paintings seen, and local histories summarized.

Manuscript and Archival Collections

MSS 106 Lloyd and Edith Havens Goodrich Albert Pinkham Ryder Archive

This collection is the working archive of Lloyd Goodrich and William Homer compiled in the course of their progress toward a catalog raisonne of the American romantic painter Albert Pinkham Ryder.

MSS 125 George Handy Bates Samoan Papers, 1869 - 1916 (bulk dates 1880 - 1899); 2 linear ft.

The papers comprise correspondence, documents, memoranda, clippings, photographs, and other material relating to George Handy Bates's tenure as a special investigator into Samoan affairs beginning in 1886, and as a commissioner to the 1889 Berlin Conference on Samoan Affairs. Of particular interest are nearly 150 photographs representing the use of the medium for cultural and ethnographic documentation.

MSS 149 and 198 Gertrude Käsebier Papers and Collection, ca. 1865 - 1951, l.3inear ft.

Concerning the career of the noted Photo-Secession and later pictorialist photograper, Gertrude Käsebier (1852-1934), these two small collections provide biographical information as well as a small sample of photographs and periodicals in which her work appeared. The University of Delaware Gallery holds a substantial collection of Käsebier's photographs.

MSS 211 Lester Douglas Collection, 1915 – 1961; 4.6 linear ft. (ca. 1,200 items)

As Director of Art and Printing for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States for 25 years, Lester Douglas was responsible for the design of all of the organization's publications, including the magazine, Nation's Business. Douglas was also a leading American book designer and an authority on typography. The collection yields examples of his work as well as theory on presentation of print.

MSS 218 Edward A. Fulton Letters, 1860 - 1877 (bulk dates 1860 - 1863); 43 items

The Civil War letters of Edward A. Fulton to his mother, Mary Fulton, of Wilmington, Delaware, were written when he served with the 72nd Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. He wrote to his mother from various camps in Virginia, describing battles fought near Harper's Ferry and Winchester. Many of his letters and envelopes are decorated with the patriotic emblems of the Union.

MSS 297 John De Pol Collection, 1837 – 2004 (bulk dates 1935-2001); 55 linear ft. and oversize

These personal papers and an additional extensive book collection trace the evolution of John DePol’s craft from his early experiments in lithography during his military service in Ireland, England, and Europe, to his apprentice years with Lewis White Company, on through his prolific career as a wood engraver for commercial firms and fine press printers which continued into the twenty-first century. During this period John DePol has collaborated with some of the most important individuals in the world of printing, including Lewis and Dorothy Allen (The Allen Press), John Anderson (The Pickering Press), John Fass (Hammer Creek Press), the Typophiles, Arthur Rushmore (The Golden Hind Press), Robert M. Jones (Glad Hand Press), Barnard Taylor (Press of Appletree Alley), Steve Miller (Red Ozier Press), Morris A. Gelfand (The Stone House Press), Jan and Crispin Elsted (Barbarian Press), Neil Shaver (Yellow Barn Press), and a host of others. During his long career DePol also continued to produce commercial work, keepsakes, invitations, booklets, and illustrations for countless magazines, corporations, publishers, foundations, and academic institutions.

MSS 298 Fridolf Johnson Papers, 1950-1985, (bulk dates 19601985); 10 linear ft.

Correspondence, photographs, greeting cards, broadsides, prospectuses, printing ephemera, books, serials, clippings, articles, pamphlets, programs, keepsakes, exhibition announcements, catalogs, and bookplates – source material related to Johnson’s career as a printer, calligrapher, and writer, reflecting his interest in lettering, italic handwriting, and the fine and graphic arts.

MSS 278 Thornton Oakley Diaries, 1908, 1919 – 1953; 36 items

The illustrator Thornton Oakley (1881- 1953) was a student of Howard Pyle, founder of the Brandywine School, in Wilmington. From 1914-1936, Oakley taught at the Department of Illustration at the Philadelphia Museum's School of Industrial Art, now the Philadelphia College of Art. Like Pyle, Oakley illustrated numerous popular magazines and books.

MSS 304 Rockwell Kent Letters to David Wesley, 1951 – 1969; .6 linear ft. (272 items)

Rockwell Kent, born June 21, 1882, in Tarrytown, New York, is best remembered today for the large and varied body of artwork he left behind, including paintings, drawings, illustrations and woodcuts. Among other pursuits, Kent wrote several books, explored remote and isolated regions of the globe, took a passionate and active interest in politics, designed his own house and, for over 40 years, ran a 200-acre farm near Au Sable, New York.

MSS 312 John Anderson Papers, 1948 - 1994 (bulk dates 1978 1994); 5 linear ft.

Book designer, typographer and printer John Anderson (born 1915), has established himself among the foremost of small press proprietors continuing the tradition of handset type. Anderson embarked on his first commercial enterprise in 1934 at the age of 19, when he founded Bantam Press in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He soon realized, however, that his enthusiasm for printing outstripped his experience, and in 1936 accepted a two- year apprenticeship with Peter Beilenson of Peter Pauper Press and the Walpole Printing Office in Mt. Vernon, New York. Anderson further developed his skills at a number of Philadelphia-area businesses, including Royal Typographers of Philadelphia, Sharp & Dohme, Westcott & Thomson, and Lanston Monotype Machine Company. During this period, in 1946, Anderson founded Pickering Press, the imprint under which he continued to print throughout his career, which he named for the nineteenth century printer, William Pickering.

MSS 319 Paulette Greene Paper Collection, 1669 - 1987 (bulk dates 20th century); 1.6 linear ft.

This collection was compiled between 1962 and 1987 by Paulette Greene, a member of the Antiquarian Booksellers' Association of America, whose business was located in Rockville Center, New York. Greene collected watermarked, handmade, and decorated papers, including endpapers from books; and individual sheets by contemporary paper artists. Along with these samples, she gathered a small body of information on the represented paper processes. Greene corresponded with some of the paper artists whose work she collected, most notably the papermaker Douglass Howell, whom she once visited in his studio in Westbury, Long Island.

MSS 338 Letters from Calligraphers to Sidney Feinberg and George Grady, 1938 – 1976; .3 ft. (59 items)

While stationed in England during World War II, American book designer and calligrapher Sidney Feinberg began his interest in calligraphy. Several of the letters in this collection are responses from noted American or British calligraphers to Feinberg's inquiries about their work and how he might develop his calligraphic skills. Feinberg's interest in and practice of calligraphy became a life-long avocation. George Grady founded the George Grady Press, a New York City firm which was noted for private and fine printing.

MSS 412 W. Russell Hood Collection related to Typography and Graphic Design, 1569 – 1970 (bulk dates 1950 - 1969); 1.3 linear ft. and oversize

The collection is a working reference file of original and reproductive lettering and design from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, as well as articles and clippings on typography and design spanning the dates 1950-1969. The files were created by W. Russell Hood, a Philadelphia- based industrial designer.

MSS 382 Brian Coffey Papers, 1930 – 1995; 11.5 linear ft., and oversized material

Avant-garde Irish poet Brian Coffey was born in Dublin on June 8, 1905. As early as 1924, while earning advanced degrees in mathematics, physics, and chemistry at University College, Coffey began writing poetry. Coffey moved to Paris in the early 1930s to continue his studies in physical chemistry under Jean Perrin. However, a developing interest in philosophy led Coffey to transfer in 1933 to l'Institut Catholique de Paris where he worked with the noted French philosopher Jacques Maritain. During this time, Coffey also became acquainted with other Irish literary expatriates, including Thomas MacGreevy and Samuel Beckett, both of whom encouraged Coffey to continue writing. Decades later, Coffey attended printing classes and established his own press, Advent Books, which began publishing limited editions of poetry with a special emphasis on typography and jacket design. Consistently avant-garde and strongly influenced by French surrealism, Coffey's poetry also reflects deeply religious and philosophical sentiments. Each series illuminates Coffey's role as a student, scholar, scientist, philosopher, poet, artist, writer, publisher, critic, teacher, translator, mentor, friend, husband, father, and grandfather.

MSS 431 Frederick G. Nixon – Nirdlinger Scrapbook, 1909; 1 volume (.3 linear ft.)

The one-volume scrapbook contains ephemera, menus, tickets, receipts, telegrams, handbills, newspapers, souvenir programs, train schedules, broadsides, advertisements, postcards, pamphlets, maps, trade cards, and calling cards about the Nixon-Nirdlingers’ travels in the spring and summer of 1909. The scrapbook records various aspects of the early twentieth-century travel business, and is particularly rich with theatrical ephemera. On April 28, 1909 the Nixon Nirdlingers sailed on the White Star Line’s S.S. Adriatic from New York to Paris. The cruise line had an extensive itinerary to France, Spain, Morocco, Italy, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and Hungary.

MSS 474 Frank W. Tober Manuscript and Early Printed Leaf Collection. 12TH - 19TH Centuries; 1 linear ft.

This study collection comprises representative leaves from manuscripts and from early printed books. It includes pages from books printed in England, France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland and that date from the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries. The manuscript pages in the collection include specimens in Latin, German, Arabic, and Indian.

MSS 449 Littell Family Papers, c. 1808 - 1999 (bulk dates 1830-1930), 12 linear ft.

The papers of the extended Morris, Harrington, Littell, and Winslow families of Pennsylvania and Delaware include numerous commonplace books, copy books, and scrapbooks. The volumes created by the three Morris Sisters of Germantown are particularly striking for the quality of the orignal botantical illustrations and other artwork, the penmanship, and consideration of the source material for the many nineteenth- century engravings found in the scrapbooks.

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