Reconstruction and Jim Crow
With the end of the Civil War in 1865, legal slavery came to an end in the United States. During an approximately ten-year period known as Reconstruction, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution offered full citizenship status to African Americans, and granted voting rights to African American men. However, there was a backlash in the mid-1870s, particularly in Southern states, where laws were established that deprived African American citizens of these same rights, and enforced segregation in housing, education and other domains of life. These new regulations were known as Jim Crow laws. During this period, racial discrimination was commonly found in the North as well. Despite this, a legal and political movement for civil rights challenged these discriminatory laws and practices throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The 1963 March on Washington marked a watershed for this growing movement social movement.
1) Jumby Bay Studios
Cases in Controversy: The Fourteenth Amendment (videorecording). United States: Jumby Bay Studios, 2003.
2) Harry Nevison
United States History, vol. 10: Reconstruction and Segregation. Wynnewood, PA: Schlessinger Media, 1998.
3) William Peters
Segregation—Northern Style (videorecording). Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2000.
4) Steven P. Halbrook
Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms. Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 2010.
5) Christian G. Samito (Ed.)
Changes in Law and Society during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009.
6) Leslie V. Tischauser
Jim Crow Laws. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2012.
7) The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The Crisis: Record of the Darker Races (reprint). New York, NY: Negro Universities Press, 1969.
8) Unknown Photographer
Photograph of Civil Rights leaders and others marching in the 1963 March on Washington. New York: Center for Jewish History, 1964.