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Reconstruction and Jim Crow

With the end of the Civil War in 1865, legal slavery came to an end in the United States. During an approximately ten-year period known as Reconstruction, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution offered full citizenship status to African Americans, and granted voting rights to African American men. However, there was a backlash in the mid-1870s, particularly in Southern states, where laws were established that deprived African American citizens of these same rights, and enforced segregation in housing, education and other domains of life. These new regulations were known as Jim Crow laws. During this period, racial discrimination was commonly found in the North as well. Despite this, a legal and political movement for civil rights challenged these discriminatory laws and practices throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The 1963 March on Washington marked a watershed for this growing movement social movement.


1) Jumby Bay Studios

Cases in Controversy: The Fourteenth Amendment (videorecording). United States: Jumby Bay Studios, 2003.

cover of box for videorecording "XIVth Amendment"

2) Harry Nevison

United States History, vol. 10: Reconstruction and Segregation. Wynnewood, PA: Schlessinger Media, 1998.

Cover of box for videorecording "Reconstruction and Segregation"

3) William Peters

Segregation—Northern Style (videorecording).  Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2000.

cover of box for videorecording

4) Steven P. Halbrook

Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms. Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 2010.

5) Christian G. Samito (Ed.)

Changes in Law and Society during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009.

6) Leslie V. Tischauser

Jim Crow Laws. Santa Barbara, CA:  Greenwood Press, 2012.

cover of book Jim Crow Laws

7) The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

 The Crisis: Record of the Darker Races (reprint). New York, NY: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

Cover of NAACP magazine/journal The Crisis

8) Unknown Photographer

Photograph of Civil Rights leaders and others marching in the 1963 March on Washington. New York: Center for Jewish History, 1964.

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