Passage of the Law
On July 2nd, 1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the 1964 Civil Rights Act into law, after overcoming the opposition of Southern Democratic congressmen and senators. The Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion and national origin in public accommodations, education, employment and housing. It also addressed discrimination in voting, helping lay the basis for a major voting rights act the following year. The law did not end all discrimination and segregation, but it overturned many of the legally sanctioned barriers that had been put into place at the end of the Reconstruction period. No longer was it possible for restaurants, schools, hospitals and other establishments to discriminate with the legal backing of the state.
1) Norman Corin
Ten Years after Brown: the Courts and the Schools (videorecording). Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences,2000.
2) Henry Hampton and Steve Fayer
Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years (videorecording). United States: PBS Home Video, 2010.
3) Gary May
Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 2013.
4) Robert D. Loevy
To End all Segregation: the Politics of the Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990.
5) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The Civil Rights Act of 1964. What’s in it: Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (pamphlet). Washington, DC: NAACP, 1964.
6) Charles W. Whalen
The Longest Debate: a Legislative History of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1985.
7) Cecil Stoughton, White House Press Office (WHPO)
President Lyndon B. Johnson Signing the 1964 Civil Rights Act (photograph). Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, University of Texas.
8) United States Senate
Record Vote Analysis. Vote No. 411. Civil Rights. Senator John J Williams papers; gift of Mrs. Elsie Steele Williams
9) Bernard Groffman (Ed.)
Legacies of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000.