Antoine Pluche, 1688-1761.
Spectacle de la nature; or, Nature Display'd; Illustrated
from copper plates. London: Printed for J. Pemberton, 1735.
de la nature, is an eight-volume study of life and creation that
was translated into virtually all European languages well into the
nineteenth century. The work, a popular rather than a scientific
study, was said to have influenced many students to become naturalists.
Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon, 1707-1788.
Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière.
A Paris: De l'Imprimerie de F. Dufart, an 8 1798-1808.
work of 127 volumes, the Histoire included everything known about the
natural world up until that date. Buffon was among the first to create
a theory of science that was free of theological influence. He understood
the concept of geological time and that animals changed over time. Charles
Darwin credited Buffon as being the first scientist to treat the concept
of natural selection in a scientific manner.
contain over a thousand engraved plates, most by Jacques de Sève,
father and son. The illustrations range in style from exact anatomical
drawings to images of animals in their natural settings. These illustrations
became a major source of information about the visual appearance of creatures
that inhabited every continent.
the Miniature Book Collections
of Natural History: with Descriptions.
London: John Marshall, 1802.
Natural History of 48 Birds. London: Printed for Darton,
Harvey, & Darton, 1816.
Flook Miniature Book Collection.
Natural History 48 Quadrupeds. London: Printed for Darton,
Harvey, & Darton, 1815.
Flook Miniature Book Collection.
of Foreign Animals, or, History of Beasts. New Haven: S. Babcock,
The Cyclopaedia; or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature.
Philadelphia: S.F. Bradford, 1810-24.
appeared in parts between January 1802 and August 1820 and ran to 39 volumes
of text, 5 volumes of plates, and an atlas. It was written by nearly a
hundred contributors, including many well-known artists and engravers.
History of Quadrupeds, and Cetaceous Animals. Bungay, England: Printed
and published by Brightly and Co., 1811.
This is a
general natural history book compiled from earlier published material.
The plates are hand-colored.
of Natural History and American Rural Sports. Philadelphia:
J. & T. Doughty, 1830-32.
was the first major American sporting book illustrated with hand-colored
lithographic plates. Many of the plates in the first volume were
done by Thomas Doughty (1793-1856), a well-known landscape painter
considered to be the founder of the Hudson River School of artists.
The lithographic plates use soft color and natural settings to present
both accurate and attractive representations of animals.
Peter P. Good, 1789?-1875.
A materia medica animalia, Containing the Scientific Analysis, Natural
History, and Chemical and Medical Properties and Uses of the Substances
that are the Products of Beasts, Birds, Fishes or Insects. Cambridge,
Mass.: The Author, 1853.
in this medical natural history discusses a different animal, its medicinal
qualities and those of its products. Included are the sponge, hen, honey
bee and bloodsucking leeches. The lithographic plates were produced by
the firm of E. C. Kellogg of Hartford, Connecticut.
Natural History Series for Children by Norman A. Calkins and
Mrs. A.M. Diaz. Boston: L. Prang, 1878.
Louis Prang Company was the most successful chromolithographic firm
of the late nineteenth century, producing books, greeting cards,
paper toys and other ephemera. Each volume of the series cost fifty
cents and was aimed at children in elementary school.
Johnson's Household Book of Nature. New York: H.J. Johnson, 1880.
a popular audience, Craig combined brief commentary taken from well-known
naturalists with brightly colored chromolithographic illustrations.
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